# Dielectric function tools¶

New in version 0.7.

## Number of effective electrons¶

New in version 0.7.

The Bethe f-sum rule gives rise to two definitions of the effective number (see [Egerton2011]):

where is the number of atoms (or molecules) per unit volume of the sample, is the vacuum permittivity, is the elecron mass and is the electron charge.

The
`get_number_of_effective_electrons()`

method computes both.

## Compute the electron energy-loss signal¶

New in version 0.7.

The
`get_electron_energy_loss_spectrum()`

“naively” computes the single-scattering electron-energy loss spectrum from the
dielectric function given the zero-loss peak (or its integral) and the sample
thickness using:

where is the zero-loss peak integral, the sample thickness, the collection semi-angle and the characteristic scattering angle.